You may have heard about Assam floods, which has affected many humans and animal. Assam floods which happen every year, along with Brahmaputra rivers and its tribal region happened in past years like 2012, 2013, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 and 2019. In 2012, floods 124 peoples and 540 animals (16 rhinos) died. In 2013 floods, 112 districts got affected along with Arunachala Pradesh state. In 2015, 42 people died. In 2016, 28 people’s died due to floods that happened in Kaziranga national park region. In 2017, floods affected 15 districts of Assam and 85 people’s died. In 2018, floods 12 people died. In 2019, floods 59 people and 141 animals(including rhinos) died. In 2020, As per the report, more than 100 humans died and more than 200animals were dead. The Kaziranga nation park which is located in Brahmaputra river tribes that’s the main reason the floods affect animals so badly. The rhino is the most popular animal in Assam.
Reasons Assam is the most flood-prone state in India. Floods of Assam state is highly affected in the northeast region, West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Bangladesh country also. Assam has experienced more than 12 major floods due to Tibet-Assam earthquake happened in 1950. After the earthquake, the Brahmaputra river became an unstable river. Another fact is that the Brahmaputra river is the fastest flowing rivers in India. Its discharge as per average is 19800 m 3 /s and maximum 100000 m 3 /s. Deforestation, development of state (unplanned project), global warming & change situation. The major reason is the failure of embankment/levee and extreme rainfall.
Summary of all the reasons.
We know that in Assam state people build their house on Brahmaputra rivers or the bank of rivers. The house pattern is very poor structure and harmful pattern. Native people developed the region without any backup plan. Like deforestation is directly affected by climate change/global warming. Contractors build embanks on rivers at a very cheap cost. It means they are not durable and strong. The construction of levees is an annual revenue source for contractors. Embank or levee is building the tall wall of both sides of the bank of the river which helps to control floods. But we know that the Brahmaputra is the fastest and unstable river. People keep the short width of the river. It means speed and height will increase due to embanks or levees. The water flows on levees or breaches the point of levees. In Assam, 450 levees build, a large number of levees in the worst condition. The maintenance of levees is not provided by the government in proper manners.
Summary of Assam floods 2020. Floods in Brahmaputra rivers is an ongoing event since May 2020. The floods started due to heavy rainfall in Brahmaputra river tribes. Till July ends floods affected 27 districts of Assam including more than 4 million peoples, Kaziranga national park, Pobitora wildlife sanctuary. The extreme rainfall is a major reason for this flood. In Assam and Meghalaya, states received 30 per cent excess rainfall as compared to normal rainfall. Arunachal Pradesh received 15 per cent excess rainfall and Sikkim state received 45 per cent excess rainfall as compared to normal rainfall. This extreme rainfall in northeast India will impact on decreased rainfall of north-west. In floods, 2020 more than 100peoples lose their lives and 200 animals dead (including 14 rhinos). Still 80 per cent land of Kaziranga National park is underwater.
Recap of major floods in India (excluding Assam).
2019: due to heavy rainfall floods, affected Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujarat, Tamilnadu, Goa, Punjab, and Bihar.
2018: In July and august months floods highly affected on Kerala states. The causes of the flood are low pressure, extreme rainfall, landslide and discharges. In this floods total 683 lives dead and 140 lives are missing. More than 40000 crore rupees property damage in floods.
2017: the floods affected on Gujarat and Rajasthan. in this flood 224 lives dead in Gujarat and 16 lives dead in Rajasthan.
2015: due to heavy rainfall floods affected on 3 south India states (Tamilnadu, Pondicherry, Andhra Pradesh), it happened on 8 November 2015-14 December 2015. More than
Tamilnadu 500 people’s died, 81 Andhra Pradesh’s people dead and 3 people ofPondicherry is dead. Chennai is the most affected city in that flood
. July 2015: this flood-affected on Gujarat state during 27 July-30 July. At least 72 people died and 2000 crore property damage in flood.
June 2015: this flood-affected on Gujarat during 22 June-24 June due to deep depression. At least 81 peoples are dead and 2600 crore property damage in this flood.
2013: this flood-affected on Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh due to heavy rainfall. Nearby 5748 peoples are dead in this flood.
Above all these floods events happened due to climate change.
Stopping the deforestation activities, climate changes impacted due to deforestation.
The building of dams on rivers will helpful for generating hydroelectric power, water conservation and water recreation.
Buildings a large number of canals for water conservation. Italy’s Venice city is the best example for channels of canals.
Increase the width of levees and kept reserve land for flood control in rivers tribe/region.
Written By: Vishal Vervalkar.